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    Roszdravnadzor has registered a genetic test that determines the right way of life

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    A new era of medicine

    Gazeta has learned that Roszdravnadzor has registered the first genetic test in Russia, on the basis of which doctors will be able to recommend a certain lifestyle to the patient, according to his own metabolism, which is regulated by the work of genes. Roszdravnadzor has issued a permit for the use for medical purposes of the Metabolic Kit 60 reagent kit, designed to identify predisposition to diseases and genetic disorders of metabolic processes in the human body.

    The test can be used to identify the characteristics of taste perception , metabolism of vitamins, deviations in the work of the detoxification system and sex hormones, determination of the specificity of carbohydrate, lipid and energy metabolism, as well as the work of neurotransmitters, lactase deficiency, predisposition to the development of osteoporosis, cardiovascular and other diseases. The Metabolic Kit 60, registered by Roszdravnadzor, contains 60 different kits of reagents, each of which determines polymorphisms in certain genes that have already been studied by science.

    “We have provided doctors with an important tool in terms of preventive medicine” Valery Polunovsky, head of the new product development department at MyGenetics (the company that created the kit), explained in an interview with Gazeta. “Before, there were kits that could only diagnose pre-existing diseases. Now you can identify predispositions. It is clear that the development of, say, cardiovascular disease depends on many factors. But thanks to our test, now the doctor and the patient will be aware of these factors and will be able to influence them.” According to Valery Polunovsky, genes with polymorphisms associated with various predispositions were selected by the expert scientific council of MyGenetics. The opinion of the expert council was submitted to the Ministry of Health, which confirmed its authenticity.

    In order to select genes for the test, MyGenetics scientists analyzed scientific meta-analyses, which have a high degree of evidence. And these works were carried out all over the world. The conclusions were drawn based on data from two biobanks: English, which contains information about 550 thousand people, and Chinese – 300 thousand people. This was necessary, since both European and Asian populations are present in Russia.

    What you can learn from the test

    “Metabolic Kit 60” involves a detailed analysis of various predispositions, on the basis of which you can choose the right eating behavior, sports, dosage and optimal absorption form of certain drugs and vitamins.

    There is a special kit in the test called “Genetics of Vitamin Metabolism”. It may be suitable for those who want to ensure the prevention of diseases associated with deficiency and excess of vitamins. These are thromboses, cardiovascular diseases, anemia. In addition, the lack of some vitamins can greatly affect memory, for example, vitamin B12.

    “I have a mutation in the gene that codes for B12. When I passed the genetic test, I was told that this vitamin is not absorbed in my intestines, I can only inject it into the muscles or spray it under the tongue. This is very important information,” Vladimir Volobuev, director of MyGenetics, told Gazeta.

    Such mutations may also affect the absorption of other vitamins.

    “ With a lack of vitamin A, vision deteriorates, wetting of the cornea is disturbed. Not without reason, in childhood, we were often told that for vision we need to drink carrot juice, which contains carotenoids, Volobuev explained. – Vitamin A enters the body in the form of carotenoids, and the enzyme that converts vitamin A from carotenoids to retinol consumed by cells is encoded by the BCMO1 gene. And, if you have a mutation in this gene, no matter how much carrot juice you drink, vitamin A will not enter your cells. This can be established using our test.”

    It can also be used to understand how serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are destroyed in the human brain, from which to draw conclusions about a person’s predisposition to depression, neurodegenerative diseases , ADHD and so on. To do this, you need to use the “Genetics of Neurotransmitter Metabolism” kit.

    “Genetics of the Detoxification System” is suitable for those who want to know their predisposition to reactions to foreign components in food and the atmosphere.

    “Energy Metabolism Genetics” will help assess the predisposition to obesity and the effectiveness of various dietary recommendations, such as a high-protein diet or intermittent fasting.

    “There are certain clinical trials for this, which show how a particular gene is associated with different diets,” said Polunovsky. – And our “Genetics of Taste Perception” kit will help you choose the right diet.

    You can also assess your athletic abilities and the risks of future injuries. To do this, you will need the “Genetics of athletic abilities” and “Genetics of connective tissue” kits. You can also choose a specific type of activity for accurate weight loss. “There are genes that code for the oxygenation of the heart muscle. This depends on the rate of saturation. Knowing this will allow you to choose physical activity for weight loss, while not burdening the heart. Someone needs to pedal for 40 minutes. And for someone in the same 40 minutes it is better to do five approaches to the bar, but high-intensity. The correct recommendations can be obtained based on the results of our test,” Volobuev explained.

    Genes will also help determine whether boxing or long-distance running is worth it. Or you still need to abandon this idea because of the risk of multiple injuries or the risk of myocardial hypertrophy.

    “Genetics of sex hormone metabolism” will help predict the risk of developing various hormone-dependent cancers and select replacement therapy.

    The same story with the selection of statins – a group of drugs whose action is aimed at lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. To do this, select the set “Genetics of lipid metabolism”.

    Fortune telling on genes

    Independent genetic scientists interviewed by Gazeta doubt the accuracy of interpreting the results of the Metabolic Kit 60 genetic test, since knowledge about genes and their effect on the metabolism of the human body is still not enough.

    “Any whole genome sequencing provides a huge amount of food for interpretation,” Pavel Volchkov, head of the MIPT laboratory of genomic engineering, explained in an interview with Gazeta. – There are passenger mutations – scientists do not yet know what they affect. There are mutations with loss of function (loss of function) and with the acquisition of function (gain of function), which are already more unambiguous. But in total, in a normal genome, we can find from 2 to 12 million differences. And the meaning of most of these differences – that is, polymorphisms, is still unknown to scientists. There are millions of described polymorphisms. If you choose 60 of them, or even 300, then there will still be a sea of ​​​​options that also matter, and possibly the opposite.

    The researcher of the genes associated with alcoholism, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Head of the Laboratory for Genome Analysis of the Institute of General Genetics named after V.I. N. I. Vavilov RAS Svetlana Borinskaya.

    “Academician Evgeny Konstantinovich Ginter, who for many years was the director of the Medical Genetic Research Center, the leading institution in our country, called such tests “fortune-telling on the genes.” Because in addition to those genes that are checked by this test, there are many others that affect these traits,” Borinskaya said in an interview with Gazeta. “This is interesting for fundamental research, because it indicates the metabolic pathways that are involved in the development of a certain disease, but for a particular person, looking at 60 genes out of 20,000 that he has is not enough. One can imagine that another 1,000 genes act in the opposite direction, but scientists just don’t know it yet.”

    3%, sometimes by 10-15%, but not several times. These are not the genes that should be used to predict with reliable prediction, says Borinskaya.

    However, there are genes in which mutations are very likely to lead to diseases, and that it makes sense to know them.

    “For example, it is worth examining the BRCA gene, a mutation in which was found in Angelina Jolie. In carriers of such a mutation, breast cancer begins 10-15 years earlier and develops in 80% during their lifetime. This is really serious, which is why such genetic analysis is used in medicine. There are gene variants that determine the rate at which drugs are metabolized. And therefore, such a drug as the anticoagulant “Warfarin” in the United States is prescribed taking into account genetic characteristics. The dose can vary several times, ”said Borinskaya.

    In her opinion, it is worth turning to the mentioned test if doctors cannot make a diagnosis for a long time. Perhaps the test will give a hint to doctors. And as for the recommendations regarding the optimal lifestyle, for people they are about the same: reduce the amount of sweet, salty and fatty foods, increase physical activity. This can be said without testing.

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